Reconfigurable Antennas and their Applications

Authors: Muhammad Saeed Khan, Antonio-Daniele Capobianco

Source:FERMAT, Volume 22, Communication 16, Jul.-Aug., 2017

Abstract: One of the biggest challenge in modern communication systems is to provide a single antenna for different applications. Existing antenna systems are limited to some applications. So it is important to design a single reconfigurable antenna for multiple applications. Five different reconfigurable printed antennas for different applications are designed during the study of this thesis. In the first design an antenna for frequency reconfigurable applications is designed. The electrical length of the conductor is changed using PIN diodes and the resonance of antenna is shifted from 4.27 GHz to 3.56 GHz. Good agreement between simulated and measured results is observed. In the second and third designs, Ultra wideband (UWB) Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antennas with on-demand Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) rejection are designed. The second design consists of two elements UWB-MIMO antenna and stubs are connected to the ground plane using PIN diodes. These stubs act as a stop-band filter and reject the band at 5.5 GHz center frequency. This design has a compact size of 23 x 39.8 mm2. The third design has almost same features as of second design but it has four elements. These elements are placed orthogonally to each other. The total size of this proposed design is 50 x 39.8 mm2. The ground plane is common and a band-stop design is placed between the ground planes. This band-stop design is connected with the ground plane using PIN diodes. When diodes are biased, the current is travelled to the nearly placed band-stop design and a notch is obtained around 5.5 GHz. In fourth design a reconfigurable array with a sensing circuit is designed. The array consists of four individual reconfigurable patches which are attached to the different conformal surfaces. These patches are reconfigured from 3.15 GHz to 2.43 GHz using PIN diodes. The correct phase at each element is provided using phase shifters. The sensing circuit is designed in such a way that only input voltage is changed to provide the correct phase on the switching frequency. The patterns of the array are recovered on both switching frequencies when array is attached to wedge or cylindrical surface. In the last design a series-fed array is designed. Composite Right/Left Handed Transmission Line (CRLH-TLs) are used instead of traditional meanderline microstrip lines to connect the array elements. These CRLH-TLs provided the zero phase at each connecting element, which resulted in broad side radiation patterns. To reconfigure the antenna to another frequency a small patch and second CRLH-TL is connected between array elements.

Index Terms: Reconfigurable antennas, PIN diodes, Selflex Antennas, CRLH antenna arrays, UWB-MIMO antennas

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Reconfigurable Antennas and their Applications