Authors: Kenji Uchino
Source: FERMAT, Volume 9, Communications 4, May Jun., 2015
Abstract: There are four factors that have influences on engineering: Social/culture/religion, Technology/science, Economics, and Politics/law. The strength of the impact of these factors becomes different according to history. Alchemy of the 16th century is an example of “Socio-Engineering”. From the Christian doctrine, “Heliocentric model” was denied, but “alchemy” was approved. Religion was controlling science. In the 17th~18th centuries, people were solved from the spell of religion and engineering based on science and technology, so-called “Techno-Engineering” is respected instead. In the 18th~19th centuries, technologies for mass production at low manufacturing cost were required and “EconoEngineering” became mainstream to enhance national strength. The intention of increasing national wealth and military strength increased friction and that led to the First and Second World War in the 20th century. Engineering of this period is mainly government-led production of war weapons, and it was a beginning of “Politico-Engineering”. After the wars, mass production technologies for the reconstruction/recovery revived, but when the 21st century began, as a consequent result, environmental degradation, resource depletion, and food famine have become major problems. Global regulations are strongly called, and the government-initiated technology (“politico-engineering”) has become important again in order to overcome the regulations. Politico-Engineering covers (1) legally-regulated normal technologies such as sustainability, and (2) crisis technologies. This paper introduces leading actuator/sensor and piezoelectric technologies, relating with the above “sustainability” and “crisis” technologies, aiming at further research expansion in this area. The sustainable society requires (a) usage of non-toxic materials (Pb-free piezoelectrics), (b) disposal technology for existing hazardous materials (high power ultrasonic transducers), (c) reduction of contamination gas (diesel injection valves), (d) new energy source creation (piezoelectric renewable energy harvesting systems), and (e) energy-efficient device development. Crisis technologies are categorized into five types: (a) natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, tornadoes, hurricanes, lightning, etc.), (b) epidemic/infectious diseases (smallpox, polio, measles, and HIV), (c) enormous accident (Three-Mile-Island core meltdown accident, BP oil spill etc.), (d) intentional accidents (acts of terrorism, criminal activity, etc.), (e) civil-war, war, territorial aggression
Keywords: Crisis technology; Sustainability technology; Politico-engineering; Piezoelectric actuator; Pb-free piezoelectrics; Piezoelectric energy harvesting; Ultrasonic cavitation; Ultrasonic motor.
View PDFGlobal Crisis/Sustainability Technologies