**Authors:** John S. Belrose, PhD Cantab

**Source:** FERMAT, Volume 02, Communication 5, Mar_Apr, 2014

**Abstract:** The very possibility of wireless communications are founded on the work of James Clerk Maxwell, whose name
is synonymous with electromagnetic waves and the basis of wireless. But not realized by many is that the four
equations that we use today under the heading “Maxwell’s Equations” were written by Oliver Heaviside, who put
them in vector form. Maxwell’s Equations (of which there were many more than four, some 20) were written in
terms of several different variables, fields and potentials, as well as current density, and they were in Cartesian
Format, with each component stated separately. Heaviside was convinced that the formulation should be in
terms of fields (E and H) rather than potentials and in general the vector rotation which makes the symmetry and
excellence of the equations so clear. Every engineer is aware of Maxwell’s equations, the four mathematical
expressions, that explain the full behavior of electromagnetism ---and grace many engineering school
sweatshirt!!

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